We have already understood a variety of clocks on the French Louis fifteen era. This time, let us continue to appreciate the “Time Art”: New Classicalist Style Memorial Clock, unique Mei Hui three god gods, by A number of talented artists and craftsmanship collaboratives, Joflanmad …
Writing | Zhang Wei
The great country will be self-introduced into three documents: deeds, language books and art books. We can’t understand any part, unless we read the other two. However, in these trials, the only trustworthy is the last part.
Later rule of Louis 15
General French historians have roughly delineated the rule of Louise 15th from 1743 to 1774 he died during the death. The Encyclopedia in the French enlightenment is in this period to reach a climax, Voltaire, Rousseau, Didero et al. Through their work, promoted people to science, art, history, philosophy, and even politics. The discussion of different disciplines such as theory, and the society is filled with free air. This social atmosphere is undoubtedly a catalyst for artistic creation, which further promotes the vigorous development of art. However, accompanying political loose and academic freedom is a reality and potential crisis. After 1743, there is no longer set up a prospecting position in the Bothella, all government affairs are arbitrarily designed by the king, and it is absolutely monarchical, but Louis fifteenth is not With Louis XIV’s rule, this rule has brought him a series of difficulties and crises, so that he was ill,
1.1. Foreign war leads to financial difficulties
With the growth of national wealth, Louis fifteenth has changed the implementation of a peace policy in recent 30 years into a series of foreign war. During this time, France has achieved a series of wars in the European continent and even successfully expanded its layout, and the Corsica, Avignon, Luolin and other places are permanently returned to France. The clock shown in Figure 1-1 is Avini Wengcheng celebrates the new classical style memorial clock made in 1768 return to France.
Figure 1-1. Avini, bronze gold with marble, sculptor Louis-Simon Boizo Sapami design, bronze cast master Pierre gouthière manufacturing clock shell Nicolas-Pierre Guichon Delunésy produced, 1771 production, high 68.5 cm, width 59 cm, 33.8 cm, now showed the London Wallace Collection Museum.
However, in the seven-year war in 1756-1763, France lost a large number of overseas colonies, which gradually slide into an unfavorable position in the British and French hegemony, which is one of the most unsatisfactory places of French History 15. The author believes that France is essentially continental country, with complex neighboring countries and borders, it is difficult to ensure that certain surrounding countries are difficult to confuse the British, this makes France when they compete with the maritime state in the UK. It is unable to put all military power to overseas and British army. As the UK, the United Kingdom in the ocean countries have natural advantages, it does not have to have more motorized strikes in the local stationary army. Therefore, from the perspective of the geopolity strategy, if France can’t board the British San Isle, it is difficult to win in the British battle.
The war has made French finances difficult, in order to slow down the pressure, Louis fifteenth intends to tax on the aristocratic class from ancient times, but he is strongly opposed by the hereditary aristocrats represented by the Paris High Court, ultimately failure.
1.2. Questionable private life
In the 15th of Louis fifteen, the privatous life is amazed and a lot of lovers. This is what he was severely criticized by history. But if you seriously read history, if the arrogance of Louis fifteenth is really as serious as historians, it is worthy of suspicion, Louis fifteenth should not spend more than the great Louis XV, thinking about the great Louis 14, think about Louis The 14th construction of the Versailles Garden and the palace and its interior is a dazzling super luxury decoration, plus the extravagant court party, we are hard to say that the spending of Louis fifteenth will be more than Louis 14, because Louis fifteenth prefer one person Alone rather than a luxurious court party; more importantly, Louis fifteenth has not launched so many large war, so it is impossible to have Louis 14 so many war spending. If Louis is left to France a fiscal stall, Louis fifteenth is nothing but the same thing.
The grandfather of Louis fifteenth died in 1711. Parents and brothers have died in 1712. At this time, only 3 years old he became the only legal heir in the French throne, and his existence is more than just about the wave of the Word. Safety, while also related to Whether France can avoid a huge and maybe in Europe, the thrower battle, from that, he must be carefully taken carefully, withstand the weight of fate; He was completely orphan at the age of 5, and his recent relatives were far from the uncle in Spain; his engagement and marriage were arranged by others, the purpose was to produce a legal heir for the Wavel, and there is no love and love. The most important thing is that he has no choice. In such a environment, the road is 15. After the adult, the king was done, and the pursuit of women loved to love women probably unavoidable. The author believes that historians do not apply the moral guidelines of the bones, and the people who don’t like the people they don’t like to set up the people who like them.
France is a Catholic country, the king can’t divorce, so the French court has a “official lover” in the ancient times. The woman in this location must be from the nobles, and their duties are to take care of the king’s life and arrange the courtroom details. She should be more able to do more about the king’s life details more than the royal queen from the marriage that is the marriage of the national political cause. Most importantly, she is my choice after the king, such as the famous Manten Mrs.
(Madame de Maintenon)
Just a formal lover of Louis 14. Louis fifteen is like Louis 14, but people have severe criticism to him, and the key reason is their official lover.
(Madame de Pompadour, 1721 – 1764) (Figure 1-2)
Benedict otherwise, another reason is that after the big revolution broke out, many people look at history from the perspective of red disaster, and return the revolutionary reasons to Ladies of Luxury. However, it should be pointed out that the latter’s life is from the wealth of her inherited, and even when she has fiscal difficulties in the country, she does not seem to criticize her how to use her own money to live. At that time, many arms were suspected that Louis fifteenth in tax reforms may be affected by this civilian affection, so it is also looking for various reasons to attack it.
Figure 1-2. Dress, “Lady of Puma”, canvas oil painting, 1756, high 22 cm, width 164 cm, now showed the old Munich Old Painting Exhibition Hall in Munich, Germany: Wikipedia
Turn to neoclassicalism
In the middle of the 18th century, with Pompei
Then discovering the archaeological excavation of the two Rome, plus the German art historian Winkerman
(Johann Joachim Winckelmann)
A systematic research on ancient Greek Roman art, making the Europeans once again set off the enthusiasm of the ancient Greek Roman culture and art. Artists are in the creation of the Baroque and Luococo’s excessive luxury and decoration, returning to the classical concise and bright, and their artistic themes are mostly derived from the myths, history and legends of the ancient Greece, and the characters in the art. Modeling evolves from classical sculptures and painting.
Figure 2-1 The shaker of the clock shown in Figure 2-1 is simple and clear, and the application of the symmetrical architectural model is equipped with a typical new classical style. There is a pair of small angels in the top of the clock, one of the left sides is studying the lines on the measp; there is a female sitting on the clock disk, a female sitting in classical costumes, one of the left sides, her representative is astronomy Muse Urania
And another one is holding a sheep book, history Musekrio
They have a strong classical style, but they are slightly hitting the fierce style of Luo Coco. Due to the history and astronomical two Musi, there is no doubt of time and space. This bell has been born in European kingdom, and we can still see a similar clock in many European Palace or Museum today. Figure 2-1A shows a similar clock in the fireplace in the Arabic Hall in the Russian Catherine in the Russia.
Figure 2-1. Astronomical and historical symbols, about 1770, 68 cm high, 80 cm, depth 28.5 cm, royal wattist Lepaute Hger du Roi Movie, ETNN Martin Kur Etienne Martincourt produces a bell, female character on the clock shell is designed by Augustin Pajou, Picture Source: Paris Parlery
Figure 2-1A. Russia Saint Petersburg Catherine Palace Arabic Hall 丨 Image Source: Wikipedia
Although the Renaissance Art of the 15-16th century has also taken advantage of the ancient Greek Roman Cultural Art, the Europe is still subject to the restrictions and constraints of the medieval Catholic tradition, which have a profound impact on literary revival art; and originated from 18 The neoclassical movement in the middle of the century occurs in the era of enlightenment sports, and people’s ideas have been liberated from the traditional religious bunch, and the art exploration and experience in the 17-18th century will, these are undoubtedly new classicism. The artistic movement is in the time of the time. As shown in Figure 2-2, the upper body’s shape refers to the David of the Renaissance of the Renaissance, and the lower body draws on the David of Michelangelo, and then refers to the sculpture of the ancient Roman emperor. Details and according to the structural design of the clock itself.
Figure 2-2, Hanni is in the Cantomed Camper, the ring of the Roman warrior, the bell author is Edme Roy, the movement of the movement is Charles – Asanas, Nongnong (Charles- Athanse Pinon, about 1770, 70 cm high, 53 cm wide, 30 cm deep, now showed the Versailles Museum.
To some extent, neoclassicism needs more advanced knowledge and artistic cultivation to truly appreciate, use the clock made by ancient artwork or allusions, placed on the fireplace of the owner book or salon, as a focus point of the house, not only Showing the owners of the art’s appreciation of art, and also test the understanding and opinion between the owner and its friends to history and reality. Figure 2-2 shows the clocks of the ancient Mediterranean Hanniba to kill the gods of Eight 10,000 Roman army in the Camgan Battle after crossing the Alps. The Carthames name will be defeated by Rome in the first cloth in the first place in the first place, and the young people have vowed to revenge. This slightly Baroque style neoclassical clock is A Tuval
(The Comte d’Artois, 1757 – 1836, the later Fawang Charlie 10, governing time 1824 – 1830)
The young prince who has grown after the seven-year war failed, hoping to show his own mind with great Hanniba.
2.1. Mei Hui three gods clock
Ancient Roman philosopher Sena
Think: Mei Hui three goddess is three sisters, their arms are connected and surrounded by a circle, jumping with light dances, hand-handed is free and kind: “A given, another accept, the third rendering. “They show people the essence of this kind of goodness and love, the three gods will always be young virgin, because the freedom and benevolence of their representatives are eternal value. In the literary revival period, the artistic theory Alberti suggested artists, art sponsors with poets, scholars, reappearing the aesthetic three goddess. The ancient Greek – Roman Times and the Renaissance Age, the artists have created the outstanding works of this theme, and in the middle of the 18th century, with the rise of neoclassicalism, French decoration art circles and timing machinery masters to explore, finally Successfully created a number of outstanding clocks with the aesthetic three goddess
(Figure 2-3 and Figure 2-4)
Figure 2-3. Farmuni, Meihui three god gods marble seats, about 1770 production, 80 cm high, now exhibition in Paris, France, Paris, Paris, Picture Source: Wikipedia, Photographer for tangopaso.
Figure 2-4. 鎏 金 bronze wall furnace clock, Meihui three goddess, movement authors from Lepaute family, clock shell is Langsova, François Vion, Simon – Philip Boeril (SIMON-Philippe Poirier), about 1770-75, 51 cm high; 17.5 cm in the base, 丨 Image Source: Paris Paris
The most important feature of the Mei Hui three gods is its horizontal rotating clock disk, with the Roman digital indicates the hour, with a multiple of the 5th in the Arabic number, and the two labels have time-rotated with different speeds. The inventions of the clock disk, the viewer will focus more focused on the sculpture, which changed the tradition of the French sculpture bell from the French sculpture beam started from the Louis 14th Age, such a clock and it is a watch It is better to say that it is a sculpture.
Figure 2-3 The marble clock is designed by the French great sculptor French, this active participation in the artist’s most famous work is his Peter’s bronze ride statue made in St. Petersburg, Russia. He is also Open in speech and books to explain the French contemporary sculpture has surpassed the artistic theory of Italian works. This Meihui three gods should be a work designed for Wang Family, this exhibition is a orphan of the clock to use marble in the Louvre. In other European other museums, we can see nude sculpture Similar works made.
Figure 2-4 The seat is designed from the 1769 appreciation of the appreciation of the appreciation of Philip Bolilier for Louis Fifteenth. The latter is also a woman who is well-behaved and the bottom-up society, but it has played a considerable role in promoting French new classic decoration art. She finally sent a header during the French Revolution.
Mrs. Dubali breast
Author let – Jack Kafyi
(Jean-Jacques Caffieri, 1725 – 1792)
For the French sculptor, he was born in the famous sculpture from Italy, we are in front
(For details, please refer to the art: Boolean, Luococo, Chinese style … I will ask you beauty! 丨 海 海 真 “)
I once mentioned his father Jack Kafieri
And Brother Philip II Kafyieri
They are all bronze sculptors and contribute to the watch style.
Figure 2-4A. Mrs. Jack Kyji, Dubari’s chest, 1770 years, marble, high 67 cm, now showed the Russian Winter Palace Museum 丨 Image Source: Wikipedia
I saw two controversial Louis fifteen loves women. I hope to introduce a history of history. Full-faced women – Maria Turda Joflan
(Marie-Thérèse Geoffrin, 1699 – 1777)
Her ideal image through a famous clock
Leave it. We saw a woman sitting on a small stool on a seat clock shown in Figure 2-5, she took the crack shell, her hair on the dish, her is in a classical robe, and the feet wears the Greek sandals, and read it. A book placed on a knee. In the long years of dozens of years, she hosted the most famous cultural salon in Paris in her house.
At the same time as the Emperor of Russian Wusha Catherine, the Austro-Hungarian Empress Maria Triste, Poland Stannislang August Pania Tovsky, etc. Good and close contact. If you go to Paris, you can discover the marble statue of the Mrs. Joflland produced in the 1880 in the exterior of the Paris City Hall, as a cultural great man in Paris, she is with Voltaire, Moli and others will always miss them forever.
Figure 2-5. Bronze gold and coated cobalt oxide block clock, Bridge Mrs. Felidandon Bauer Shande Movement Edmy Roy made a clock shell, furniture teacher Dulme making a pedestal, about 1765, high 53 cm; width 72 cm; Deep 27.5 cm 丨 Image Source: Paris Parlery
Figure 2-5A. ANICET CHARLES GABRIL LEMONNIER, Mrs. Joflan, canvas, painting, 1,29.5 cm high, 196 cm high, now showed in Malmoson Castle 丨 Source: Wikipedia
Since the first time of this model in the middle of the 18th century, its neoclassical modeling and design is considered to be the most successful and perfect work of Paris timing devices. When it created, he immediately shocked many of the important Paris collectors and has been very popular in more than 40 years. It can be said that there is no one bell to arouse France and European collectors so lasting enthusiasm.
Mrs. Joffland is a masterpiece with a number of talented artists and craftsmen.
Design women’s statue shape; bronze cast home Edmy Roy
Casting clock shell; Watch Master Feldidand Bower Shande
(FerDinand Berthoud, 1727 – 1807)
For it to provide a movement; the lace branch of the 鎏 鎏 青 花 贴 贴 贴 是 华 华 华 华 华,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
We use a famous decoration with luxurious gold bronze sculpture precision
To end this article, the top of the top of the Baroque style neoclassicist sculpture should be affected by the famous Apollo fountain in the Versailles Garden.
I saw that this sculpture should express the situation of the sun god Apollo driving the ridicitated talents, but if you read the latin Ming Ming in the small bronze medal in the sculpture, we will find it is from the Roman poet Ovid “deformed” “In the poem.
Figure 3-1. South American red sandalwood and rosewood embedded in the precision of the gold bronze sculpture, the motion of the movement is Fairdiande Bauer Shande, bronze gold sculpture by Philip II Kaffieri (Philippe Ii Caffieri) made, the bell author is Balthazar Lieutaud, about 1770, 254 cm high, 60.2 cm wide, deep 37 cm 丨 Image Source: Paris Parlery Yitong
Figure 3-1A. South American red sandalwood and rosewood embedded in the precision of the gold bronze sculpture
“At this moment, I will never tirelessly pull the horses of the sun, Robs, Yusus and Iiysong,
There is also the fourth name called Philiple, and they roar together, and they spray fog in their mouth.
This fog is like a burning flame diffuses in the sky, and the horseshoe of flying Yang is stepping on all obstacles and embarrassment.
(Jnterea Volucres Pyroeis, Eous ET OTHON,
Solis Equi, Quartus Q; Phlegon Hinnitibus Auras,
Flammiferis JMplent, Pedibus Q; Repagula Pulsant. “
People who have read “Modified” may ask, is he is the child of the Sun God
? This God’s second generation will show his identity and glory to the world, regardless of warning, driving the sun car to the sky, but can’t overcome the various difficulties encountered, the loss of the soul is lost, and the four sky Therefore, breaking freely and flying downwards, and the earth burned due to the falling of the sun. Fathe was dragged and fell to the burning flame, and paid life for his light floating and vanity. When you watch this hour, the author can’t help but ask yourself. Who is the topic sculpture of this clock? The clock author is to sing the glory of the Louis Fifteen Dynasty or to issue some kind of warning?
About the Author
, Art History Researcher, Winter Palace Museum Watch and Ancient Lee Consultant, French Roop Calls Consultant, Guangdong Watch Collection Research Professional Committee Consultant, is also a mathematician, logicalist.