Lin toe gold in the tomb of Haiyouhou
In the first year of Han and Yuanping (74 BC), Emperor Zhao died. Because of his son, the minister Huo Guang chose to let Liu He come to inherit the throne. The alternation of this regime has completely changed Liu He’s fate. He has only been 27 days since he entered Changan in the old Tuchangyi country. He has collapsed in the cruel political struggle because of his insufficient personal virtue. He was abolished and returned to his home country. In March of the three years of Yuankang (63 BC), he received the book of the successor Xuan Di, and was sealed by the sea. However, when talking to people, he revealed remorse for the failure of Gong Dou that year, and the defendant was severely punished, and soon died silently.
In fact, the end of the political career many years ago means the despair of Liu He’s life, but this historical record shows his suffering. From this we can guess that in the last years, Liu He should recall the glory of the glory of Weiyang Palace countless times. In order to maintain the unreasonable connection with the central government, he has piety to prepare a bunch of gold wares to imagine to participate in the court’s golden ceremony. However, he is a person who is “stubborn” and the political qualifications participating in the sacrifice of Zongmiao are eventually deprived. Therefore, those valuable gold wares can only be buried into the deep tomb with the owner, becoming an eternal puzzle. It was not until two thousand years later, which caused a sensation in the academic world.
More than 10,000 relics (sets) unearthed from Liu He’s tomb, including gold, bronze, iron, jade, lacquer wood, ceramics, bamboo braids, straw wraps, textiles and bamboo slips, wooden crickets, etc. Among them, there are 478 gold wares, about 115 kg, and are shaped include gold cakes, gold versions, horseshoe gold and Lin toe gold. Because there is only the golden cake ink book, “The South China Sea Haiyun Houchen He Yuankang three years of gold, one pound”, it can be determined to be made for the golden ceremony. The use of the remaining gold is difficult to determine, but there are two styles and eye -catching.
A kind of horseshoe -shaped, called “horseshoe gold” (Figure 1). The other is cast into a sharp -footed -footed shape, looks like deer hoof, touching the ground at the bottom, and a circle of fine gold wire lines on the top.
Figure 1 unearthed horseshoe gold in Nanchang Haiyou Hou Tomb
Figure 2 Lindongsin
Kirin’s royal cultural connotation
As the name suggests, “Lin toe” means that Kirin’s hoof is long, and the source is long and has long been seen in the Book of Songs. “Zhou Nanlin’s toes” cloud: “Lin’s toes, Zhen Zhenzi, Yu Xinglin.” Use “Lin toe” Bixing to describe the grace and noble morality of the noble son.
The term “Lin toe” was circulated, and it also affected the culture of ethnic minorities. For example, the Emperor of the Northern Zhou Dynasty established the Lin toe Hall, and the cultural celebrities that gathered in the north and the south were compiled in the history of the schools.
Kirin is a kind of god beast, such as Han Yuyan: “The horn, I know it is a cattle; , Wolf, elm, deer; Weilin is not known. “But in the pre -Qin and Han dynasties, it was imagined as a kind of good beast that can be seen in reality, symbolizing the prosperity of the peace. For example, the story of the famous Confucius tragedy “West Hunting”, in the Han Dynasty, the royal family admired it.
There are buildings named after Kirin in Chang’an Palace in the Western Han Dynasty. Green Lock Gate, Xuanwu, Canglong Two. ‘”Volume III” Weiyang Palace “:” Kirin Temple, Weiyang Palace has Kirin Temple. ” name.”
Kirin Pavilion has been widely circulated because of the portrait of eleven heroes. In the three years of Han Ganlu (51 BC), Xuan Di realized ZTE. For the sidelines, he specially ordered the paintings to draw eleven hero images in the Kirin Pavilion. This is the highest glory of the people, and was chanted by later generations to be chanting “Gongcheng Lin Pavilion” and “Who Lin Pavilion”.
From the Kirin Pavilion of the Political Center to the marginalized Yuzhang Lin toe gold, Kirin seems to be an indispensable auspicious symbol in the royal culture, and it is a symbol of blood and identity.
So, what exactly does Kirin look like?
The lion -shaped stone beasts on both sides of Jiankang Emperor Tomb of the Southern Dynasty were called “Kirin”. The Taipei Palace Museum hidden a “Ming Ren Painting Kirin Picture”, which depicts the scene of the “Kirin” of the “Kirin” to the Emperor Yongle Zhu Xi. In the picture, the unicorn is the image of the giraffe (Figure 3). A pair of copper beasts in front of the Gate of Cing Palace at the Palace Museum, the lion’s scales (Figure 4), there are two names of “lion” and “unicorn”. But these are deformation of the interpretation of later generations. The literature and image materials of the pre -Qin and Han dynasties show that the appearance of Kirin is not related to foreign lions, but a complex of local animals.
Figure Three Taipei Palace Museums Collection “Mingren Painting Kirin Pictures Shen Du”
Figure Figure Four Palace Museum in front of Cing Palace Gate of Cing Palace
In the literature record, its prototypes include three animals: sheep, horses and deer. It seems that sheep said, such as “Beginner” Volume 29 quoted “Filial Passage”: “If there is a corner on the head, there are meat on the end, there are meat, sheep head.” Jiu Yin “Said the text”: “Horse body, flesh horns, ox tail.” Like Lu said, as “Eria” said: “麕 body, one corner, ox tail.” No matter which animal is like Unicorn, maybe the corner is meat.
The image of the unicorn in the image data is also roughly consistent with the literature records, which can be divided into three types: sheep, horses and deer.
(1) Sheep -shaped unicorn
Sheep -shaped unicorn appears on the form of copper or jade in the Han Dynasty in the form of decoration. For example, a jade pendant was unearthed in the ruins of the arsenal of Chang’an City, Xi’an, Shaanxi (Figure 5). The jade pendant is round and the center is through the carving. Three feet stand upright, only the right forefoot is lifted, the shoulders are raised, and the background of the cloud and gas pattern is increasingly showing. Scholars such as Sun Ji, Huo Hongwei, and other scholars named this type of unicorn as “Kirin”. Similar images are more common in the northern Xiongnu tombs such as Charam, Nonano Wulala, etc. Some scholars speculate that this image is the continuation of Skai style and Ordos -style bronze wares in the Han Dynasty.
Figure 5 The sheep -shaped unicorn jade pendant unearthed from the ruins of Chang’an City, Xi’an, Shaanxi
Another example is the popular five spirit mirrors and multi -milk beasts that are popular in the Han Dynasty, and there are also sheep -shaped unicorn images. It forms a combination with other four spirits. The so -called five spirits, namely Qinglong, White Tiger, Xuanwu, Suzaku, and Kirin. This beast combination has become popular since the Western Han Dynasty, which is related to the five elements. For example, “Liwei · Square Destiny” cloud: “The ancients were matched with the five souls: dragons, woody, Feng, fire; Lin, white tiger, Jinye; water turtle, water also.”
On the one hand, the Western Han Dynasty Wuling Board’s bronze mirror was exquisite and gorgeous. The mirror is round, and the back structure of the mirror is divided into three parts: New seat, inner and outer areas. A circle of nails around the new seat is cast, and the twelve -schochrilar scriptures are cast. The patterns and bloggers are divided into the four parties and eight poles. In the pattern of each position, they are decorated with the image of the beasts; the outer area is a circle of inscriptions, and its essay has the style of the Han Fu; (Figure 6). The beasts in the interior of the copper mirror area are vivid, or winding, or the front of the front, or the head of the head, or the winged clouds, and the surrounding clouds are added with clouds, which adds to the fairy. Among them, Kirin is located in the south.
Figure Liu Henan Luoyang unearthed from the Western Han Dynasty Wuling Bureau Tattage Mirror
(2) Horse -shaped Kirin
Horse -shaped unicorn images are more common in the Chinese murals and portrait bricks and stones in the Han Dynasty. Among them, the most convincing is the image of the list, which is found in the Han Dynasty mural grave of Luoyang Village, Henan Province. The mural images of the tomb have been damaged due to the tide and the age of the age. In the west wall of the front room, it can distinguish the painting of a treasure poultry on the south side of its upper part, north, tail feathers, and ink book. Words; A Swiss beast on the north side, south of the face, shoulders, shoulders, horseshoe, beef -shaped, the word “骐驎” in Lishu list. The main body of the animal body is blurred, and it can only be speculated as a horse shape according to its approximate outline.
A clearer image is found on the portrait stone in front of the Han Tomb of Maocun, Xuzhou, Jiangsu. The stone left, right, and upper frames are decorated with semi -circular patterns, which outline the frame with horizontal lines. The main image in the box is a case of a beast. The two ends of the picture are set up several god dragons, god birds, etc. In the center of the center of the images of a pair of Kirin. The Yu Ren stood in the middle, dancing his hands, and his arms began, as if he was fed the god beast; the two Kirin stood on the left and right. The neck stretches forward slightly, and goes to the hands of the feathers in front of him.
Figure Seven Portrait Stone in front of the Han Tomb, Maocun, Xuzhou, Jiangsu
(3) Deer -shaped unicorn
Deer -shaped unicorn is the most common, but sometimes it is easy to confuse with horse -shaped unicorn. Judging from the topic of the image, the word “horse” of the word “骐驎” seems to imply the relationship between the beast and the horse.
In addition to the material of the mural tombs of the aforementioned Liyang Pu Village, the portrait stone on the east wall of the east wall of the Miaoyu tomb of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Jiangsu, also has a list of “骐驎”, but the beast is deer -shaped and elegant (Figure 8). In addition, the portrait stone of the Wuliang Temple in Shandong also has a deer unicorn image on the stone, and its list is used as the word “Lin”, which seems to be associated with the deer. Therefore, from the glyph, the “horse” and “deer” may show the change of the Kirin prototype.
Figure Eighth Portrait of Miaoyu Tomb of Miaoyu Tomb
In contrast, the image materials of the deer unicorn are the most abundant, and the shape is particularly beautiful, which comprehensively reflects the ancient people’s willingness and beauty of the ancients.
For example, the gold and copper unicorn unearthed in Lijia Village, Henan, is 8.6 cm tall and 6.7 cm long. It takes deer as a prototype, unicorn on the head, looking ahead, soft eyes, the neck has a scheduled collar, and the limbs stand up. The Kirin’s shape is elegant, the whole body is golden, and the golden layer has a damage place. The atmosphere made the atmosphere seemed to be Chengjiang, quiet as practicing (Figure 9).
Figure Jiuhn, Henan Yanshi Lijia Village unearthed, gold and copper Kirin
Deer Kirin is more common on portrait stones in Sichuan and Shaanxi. Their appearance is similar. The unicorn on the top of their heads often has meat, her head is tall, her long tails are drooping, their limbs are slender to stand on their limbs, showing their smart posture.
An Eastern Han Dynasty was unearthed in Zhaoxue County, Liangshan Prefecture. However, seeing a unicorn on the head of its head stands proudly, the corner -end meat is like a peach -shaped, and the neck is curved on the front; The visual effects of the low front and rear high seem to have just fell from the sky and jump lightly from the sky, and the fluttering of the immortal dust (Figure 10).
Figure 10 Liangshan Prefecture, Sichuan, Zhaojue County, Liangshan Prefecture unearthed from deer unicorn stone carvings
A portrait stone unearthed from the Eastern Han tomb. The picture is divided into the upper and lower floors. The left and right ends of the upper layer are engraved with the sun and the moon wheels. As if the gods were born in the clouds, the gods turned into Rui Yun, and they were entangled with each other, and it was difficult to distinguish each other, showing the blurred dream of Wonderland. The lower screen is a team of the beasts that go to the left. Pin the medicine and beasts such as white rabbits, tigers, dragons, phoenixes, and god birds in order, with Swiss grass in the middle; the left end of the picture is a combination of a feathers and Kirin. The feathers are facing the right side, jumping up in one way, holding a Kirin in front of them, and Kirin is located at the head of the god beast team. Facing the feathers, the unicorn on the head of the head follows the raised head with the head of the head raised. The ministry, the slightly tilted back, stood upright, lifted the right hoof, and trembled (Figure 1). Here, the feathers and Kirin form a wonderful relationship and relationship, as if a team of teams finally welcomed a messenger from Wonderland after wading mountains and rivers, and he brought a mysterious stem.
Figure 1 Portrait of Shaanxi Midi unearthed door lintel
The above is the three common prototypes of Kirin in the Han Dynasty. Although they have their own characteristics, they are vertical and unicorn on their heads, and their shapes are full of spirit.
Kirin’s image combination and folk belief
Kirin in the Han Dynasty often forms an image combination with other gods and beasts to create fairy and spiritual light in the tomb. It seems that this scene can offset the fear of dilute death and soothe the soul of the eternal death.
Kirin on the bronze mirror is often combined with a variety of god beasts, especially the four gods, while the combination objects on the portrait bricks, stones and murals can be roughly divided into the following three categories.
(1) Combination with Queen Mother West
Queen Mother Western was the most healthy goddess in the Han Dynasty. As early as the Warring States Period, her legends were popular. In the Han Dynasty, she was famous for being passed on as an immortal elixir. West queen mother’s beliefs that are popular in the people. In the Han Dynasty portrait stones, bricks, bronze mirrors, and even the cash cash cow and pottery figurines in the southwestern region, the Queen Mother of the West has evolved into a dignified and noble goddess from the half -human and half -beast image in the Mountains and Seas.
She is serving a wide sleeve, or a high -top or wearing crown. The most common is Dai Sheng. Sheng. Before the hair, it is also the decoration. “Sheng Nai is a kind of hair accessories. Mr. Sun Ji has not many secular women who have Dai Sheng on the portrait stone. This kind of ornament is roughly regarded as one of the signs of the Queen Mother of the West. In addition, there are often some servants around the Queen Mother of the West, such as jade rabbit, toad, three -legged Wu, nine -tailed fox, chicken head or cow head body, etc. Kirin may sometimes appear.
For example, a portrait stone unearthed from Zoucheng Gaozhuang Township, Shandong, and the image of the Mother West Queen Mother’s image at the top of the picture. I saw her wore a long stick, dressed in a robe, sitting with a few, and one waiter on the left and right. There is a group of god beasts under the screen. The birds and beasts are jumped. One of the unicorn is similar to the deer, standing upright, and the meat unicorn on the top of the head stretches backwards, and the short tail is upward (Figure 1 two).
Figure 1 Two Shandong Zoucheng Gaozhuang Township Unearthed Portrait Shito Film
In the Han Dynasty, people thought that the place where the Queen Mother West was located showed an immortal wonderland. For example, Wang Sengda’s “Sacrifice Yan Guanglu Wen” said: “In the past, Chang E was taken with the imperial medicine of the West, and then ran to the moon.” Kirin appears in this fairyland, which has the meaning of auspiciousness of longevity.
(2) Combination with other immortals
In addition to the Queen Mother of the West, Kirin also often combines with ordinary fairy.
The fairy characteristics are that they can be able to surround the universe of the world, such as “Zhuangzi · Xiaoyaoyou”: “The mountains of the aunts shoot, there are gods live, the skin is ice and snow, and it is enough to eat the grain; , Take the clouds, the royal dragon, and swim away from the four seas. ” Medicine, Yaoxing, climbing the scenery, watching the Xuanpu, floating Penglai. “On the portrait stone, Kirin may be used as a fairy mount. In terms of image expression of portrait portraits, riding unicorn is similar to horse riding. For example, a portrait stone unearthed from Baizhuang, Linyi, Shandong, and the picture is divided into four grids from top to bottom. Monster image. Among them, the two unicorn, two unicorn, one of them rode on one back with a cactus with both hands raised, seemed to be instructed to grasp the direction (Figure 13).
Figure 1 three of Shandong Linyi Baizhuang Early Portrait Shito Film
There is also a portrait stone in Linyi Baizhuang, which is similar to the former. It is also divided into four compatriots from top to bottom. In the third grid, Kirin is like a horse shape, unicorn, standing upright, long tails, and 器 在 昂; a fairy rides on its back, lifts his right hand, and his body is slightly leaning back (Figure 14) (Figure 14) Essence Some scholars have noticed this phenomenon, and pointed out: “Although I did not see the image of riding horses on the portrait stone, it was speculated that if some horseshistors tilted backwards, it would be difficult to do that if they did not kick anything under their feet. of.”
When is Ma Yan invented? Many scholars have discussed. Mr. Wangjin combined with various opinions to further verify that the early stables were the wooden core horse crickets of outsourcing metal or leather. This shape of cultural relics “was unearthed in Northeast China. From the 3rd to the 4th century, most of the excavations were buried in Xianbei people. ” According to the wooden horse mackerel unearthed in Japan, it was “a more primitive form that it should be more primitive than the woody core horse in the foreskin.”
Figure 1 and Four Shandong Linyi Baizhuang Early Portrait Shito Film
Another example is a image combined with a combination of fairy and unicorn on the sarcophagus of Luzhou No. 7 in Sichuan. The fairy does not ride but stands in front of Kirin. The magical attributes of both sides of the beast; Kirin is located on the left side of the picture, the unicorn on the head, the shoulders of the shoulder, and the lips to the Ruicao in front of them (Figure 1).
Figure 1 Five -Five Sichuan Luzhou No. 7 sarcophagus Kirin portrait pioneer
The riding cars on the portrait stone mostly guide the undead to the immortal. When they are combined with Kirin, it means that they give Kirin similar functions.
(3) Combination with Phoenix
Kirin and Phoenix are also a common combination. “Spring and Autumn Zuo Zhuan justice” cloud: “Linfeng Five Spirit, the King of the King.” Yilu gathers. There is no blame at time, and blessing is my mother. ” Why do you ask for today? “
Lin and Feng each are beasts in the beast, and the kings in the birds can be regarded as a symbol of governing the world.也, the saints of the beast. “
There are also this pair on the portrait stone, and often the composition is gorgeous. For example, the horizontal portrait under the door of the tomb of Qianliangtai, the composition of this stone is particular, with a long -column image engraved on the left and right ends of the picture, and one bucket of three liters of buckets on each side of the stigma; , And from the three diamond -shaped patterns, they are divided into left and right. These patterns are like curtains, which together with Douyu create a visual effect similar to the picture. In each picture, there is one god beast, two of them, the left is the Phoenix, the neck of the long cricket, the tail feathers are long and Huaimao, and the upward curls to form a beautiful arc; the right is Kirin, unicorn, two wings, two wings Flying up, facing the Phoenix (Figure 16).
Figure 1 Sixth Shandong Qianliangtai tomb door under the door of the horizontal portrait pioneer
Another example is the image on the sarcophagus No. 2 of Xinjin. This picture brings together the four spirits of dragons, basalt, phoenix, and Kirin, with peculiar shapes, smooth lines, and artistic atmosphere. In this picture, Suzaku, Xuanwu and Qinglong occupy the main position: the center of the picture is a pair of phoenixes, the left and right, a ray of hair on the top of the head, wings stand on the wings, and the wings are full. Their tails are composed of five gorgeous long feathers. The tail feathers were carefully carved, and the lines were extremely elegant. For Phoenix is a basalt, the turtle and snake are entangled, and the shape is strange; it is separated by a huge ganoderma between the pair of phoenixes, and the ganoderma branches are winding and fluttering. On the right side of Feng and Xuanwu, there is a green dragon with the same volume, the shoulder wings, and the empty wings, and they cover the sky with the wings of the wing, as if they are shrouded in the power of the gods. There is a running person on the left side of Xuanwu, and one person on the right ride Kirin to the center. The unicorn on the top of the Kirin’s head, like a horse shape, fluttering long tails, and four hoof flying (Figure 17). In this portrait stone, Kirin combined with several god beasts, reflecting the lifelike life of the Han Dynasty, as if the devotional belief of these beasts and poultry can really move the heavens and the earth and show the deep blessings.
Figure 17 Sichuan Xinjin No. 2 sarcophagus Kirin portrait pioneer
The creation of Kirin condenses the wisdom and aesthetics of traditional culture. It can not only trace the ancient and far away, but also passed on to a long time. In the time and space where the change is stretched, its image may have changed in the legend of generations, but people’s love and longing for it have never changed. Until today, they are still the same as today. A auspicious symbol in our national culture.
The reason why Kirin can have such a deep vitality may be related to its connection with its broader land. For example, in the Han Dynasty, it no longer met the political category of the emperor’s needs, but more showed the epoch of hunting and strangeness, and observed the life experience of ordinary people.
A few times hurt the past, and the mountain shape was still pillow the cold current. But sometimes, even the mountains and rivers cannot resist the vicissitudes of the sea. Some beautiful historical memories can only rely on the spiritual and cultural heritage of a generation to obtain eternal life.
Editor in charge: Zhong Yuan