The so -called speech of the United States’ launching the economic and trade war in China is to label a not freshly label to China’s economic system- “National Capitalism”. This statement believes that China’s socialist market economy is not a real market economy. China is a country led by protectionism and businessism. Its main basis is that China implements state -owned economy, government intervention, industrial policies, etc. Wait. In fact, this is not the first time in the West to deduct the “national capitalism” hat to the Chinese economic model. Behind some people re -refer to the “national capitalism” theory, in fact, they hide their deep -seated reasons for the launch of China’s economic and trade war. That is, the dispute between roads and systems.
1. Who is the real “national capitalism”
What exactly is “national capitalism”? To figure out its connotation and essence, you can see the truth of some people hype.
National capitalism is the concept that Lenin proposed to describe the stage characteristics of capitalism development, indicating that the country’s role is continuously enhanced during the development of capitalism. Capitalism is a kind of capitalism that directly controls these or those capitalist companies under the capitalist system. ” The second is to refer to the country’s supervision and regulation of the development of capitalist economy. “Monopoly capitalism is transforming to the state monopoly capitalism. Due to the situation of the situation, many countries implement social regulation of production and distribution.” According to the current “national capitalism” viewer, national capitalism and free capitalism are two very opposed capitalism forms. However, examining historical facts can find that the emergence and development of capitalism has never been separated from the role of the country. In the so -called “rise of the Western world”, the country plays an extremely important role. When Marx’s “Capital” and the original accumulation of capital, it clearly pointed out that the factors of British capital accumulation “” systematically combined in the late 17th century as a colonial system, a national debt system, a modern tax system, and a protection tariff system. Based on the cruel violence, such as the colonial system is this. But all these methods use national power, that is, the concentrated, organized social violence to vigorously promote the transformation process from feudal production to capitalist production methods, shortening the transformation of capitalist production methods, shortening, shortening, shortening, shortening, shortening, shortening, shortening, shortening, shortening, shortening. Transition time. After the establishment of the capitalist system, the principles of free competition and free trade have gradually gained a dominant position, but the capitalist countries have not faded the economic intervention. In fact, free trade and protectionism, free competition and state intervention are intertwined, and they have disappeared. Long is a main line for the evolution of the capitalist system. Some Western capitalist countries in history, including the United Kingdom, France, Germany, the United States, Japan, etc., in the stage of economic take -off, the state has played an extremely important role in economic development. At the end of the 19th century, under the promotion of the second industrial revolution, the concentrated development of production and capital accompanied by the socialization of production and the rapid development of the capitalism, capitalism entered the monopoly stage from free competition. The monopoly trend, especially the status of financial capital in economic life, has continued to improve, which not only controls the country’s economic lifeline, but also begins to grasp the country’s political power and penetrate its influence into all aspects of social life. During the two World War, monopoly capitalism was further transformed into national monopoly capitalism. After the Second World War, capitalist countries, from various aspects such as production, distribution, exchange, consumption, etc., through various means such as fiscal policy, monetary policy, income policy, industrial policy, scientific and technological policy, environmental policy and nationalization, etc. Economic life has unprecedentedly strengthened the economic intervention, and the combination of monopoly capital is increasingly close, and the development of capitalism has officially entered the state of monopoly capitalism. After the 1980s, neo -liberalism became the administrative concept of the British and American governments, and the state’s economic intervention was challenged, but it would never withdraw from the historical stage.
Although the United States claims to be a representative of the free market economy and free capitalism, in fact, the role of the state in economic development is also very obvious and important. Historically, the United States is the birthplace and base camp of modern trade protectionism. From the founding of the People’s Republic of China to the end of World War II, it has been implemented in trade protectionism. The “American school” in the history of economics is known for its sharp protectionism and other countries. After the Second World War, the United States began to promote trade liberalization for its own interests, but the country’s intervention in the economy has continued to increase. Kanesist economics has become the mainstream of American economics. Formulate. For example, the proportion of total US government expenditure in total domestic product increased from 26.8%in 1960 to 41.3%in 2010; the number of US government employees increased from more than 4 million in 1940 to more than 22 million in 2010. Experts with research and innovation have pointed out that as advocates of small governments and free market doctrines, the United States has implemented large -scale public investment plans in terms of technology and innovation for decades, thereby laid the foundation for their past and current economic success. From the Internet to biotechnology, and even shale gas development, the US government has always been the core driver of innovation leading growth. Therefore, the United States is a typical representative of the “entrepreneur country”. If any other country in the world wants to imitate the American model, they should be done according to the actual behavior of the United States instead of the United States. After the outbreak of the international financial crisis in 2008, the United States once again sacrificed the magic weapon of state intervention, launched a large -scale financial rescue plan and fiscal stimulus plan to stabilize the economy and promote growth. After the Trump administration came to power, it even implemented national intervention policies such as trade protection, immigration restrictions, and industrial return. In order to achieve the “U.S. priority” goal, he did not hesitate to sacrifice the interests of people from all over the world.
It can be seen that the so -called pure free market economy and free capitalism have never really existed. The capitalism that exists in reality cannot be unable to get rid of national capitalism. American economist Samuelson clearly stated in his book “Economics” that in all developed industrialized society, we have seen a hybrid economy, that is, the market decides the price and output of most private sector products The government uses taxation, expenditure and monetary management plans to regulate the operation of the overall economy. The famous economic historian Neil Ferguson pointed out in the article “We Are All National Capitalists” that the competition between China and the United States is attributed to the global system competition between the national capitalism and the free market. Incorrect. Obviously, the hat of “national capitalism” to socialist China and the socialist market economy with Chinese characteristics is actually Zhang Guanli Dai.
2. What is the intention of “national capitalism”?
After the international financial crisis in 2008, developed capitalist countries such as Europe and the United States have fallen into economic dilemma, and the development of China and other countries is still strong, especially the relative strength between China and the United States, which makes the internal contradictions of developed countries and China in the world economic system and China. The structural contradictions of emerging economies have become more and more prominent. On the one hand, some countries cannot see the rapid development of China, and on the other hand, they are even more reluctant to attribute China’s success to the socialist system led by the Communist Party. Therefore, a category of Lenin’s earliest proposal and originally belonging to socialist political economics rather than Western economics- “National Capitalism” has become an exclusive concept of some people to explain and attack China’s emerging market economy countries. Essence Former US Secretary of State Hillary has claimed that the rise of “national capitalism” constitutes a challenge to the US economic and strategic challenges. American scholar Ian Bremo proposed in the book “The End of the Free Market: Who Wins the War between the Country and the Company” published in 2010 and proposed that the “national capitalism” model and “free capitalist” of emerging economies such as China The conflict between “is essentially a war between emerging economies and private companies in developed countries. In January 2012, the British “Economist” magazine published a set of articles entitled “The Rise of National Capitalism”. “National Capitalism” subsequently became the debate theme of the Davos Forum. The “national capitalism”, the category of political economics, seems to have transformed into a major challenge about systems, politics and ideology in the West. At present, the economic and trade war intensity launched by the United States is unprecedented. Its theoretical and public opinion base points still have not separated from the so -called “anti -national capitalism” orbit. Some politicians in the United States once again throw the topic of “national capitalism” is just a heavy bomb. The difference is that the “anti -national capitalism” trend seems to have become a paranoid concept in some American dignitaries, and strives to be transformed into a series of trade bullying policies against China.
The purpose of “national capitalism” is very clear, that is, the opposition of the so -called “national capitalism” and “free capitalism” defended capitalism, and created public opinion for the development of developing countries, especially China. On the one hand, trying to transfer and cover up the deep disadvantages of the capitalist system, attribute the crisis of capitalist systems caused by the basic contradictions of capitalism into the threat of “national capitalism”. On the other hand, the spearheads point directly to socialism with Chinese characteristics, try to distort, smear, and slander China’s socialist market economy system, try to shake people’s confidence in the socialist system and the socialist market economy system with Chinese characteristics, forcing China to give up the practice The proved roads and systems proved to eventually curb China’s development.
Historical experience is worth noting. In terms of the issue of “national capitalism”, some countries have always implemented dual standards: when national support is required for capital accumulation, the way of major protectionism and state intervention is required; It is required to open the market unconditionally and forcibly promote free trade in order to make profits from it; when its competitive advantage slowly disappears due to the chase of the post -developed country, it has re -sacrificed the banner of trade protectionism. On the one hand, in the world market, use free trade to play the advantages of the country’s monopoly capital to post -developed countries, and strive to maintain the monopoly position of the country’s capital and technology aspects; on the other hand, various protectionist measures are adopted to curb the capital of other countries – — Whether it is a state -owned capital or a private capital -competition, impact and overtake. This economic logic is “orthodox” with ideology and interprets the advantages of competitors as ideological “heresy”. The representative of the German historical school, Liszt, used the saying of “drawing ladders” to make a wonderful metaphor for this trick: when a person has climbed to the peak, he will use the ladder he used when he gradually climb up. Kick away, lest others follow him.
Some people always try to incorporate China into the capitalist spectrum, or take it for granted that China’s market economy will automatically enter the capitalist spectrum. At that time, when China was determined to implement the socialist market economy system, some people always asked such problems, saying that you are doing a good market economy in China, but why should you add the words “socialism” in front? Several words always feel uncomfortable and uncomfortable. When socialism with Chinese characteristics is increasingly developed with western capitalism, some of them would rather insist on their own old discourse systems interpreting China as “national capitalism”, and they are unwilling to acknowledge Chinese characteristics. The socialist system and the socialist market economy have strong vitality and have achieved success they are unwilling to see. This is where they throw the essence and logic of “national capitalism” theory.
3. Use economic hegemonism to distort the socialist market economy system
Western capitalist countries have always regarded the market economy as their own exclusive and patents, which seems to be a “truth” in Western economic theory. However, market economy and capitalism are two different things. The market economy is a method of allocation of resource allocation. It can be combined with the capitalist system and can be combined with the socialist system. The capitalist market economy and the socialist market economy are common in the method of resource allocation and commodity economic relations. For example, the market players are required to maintain an equal competitive relationship, have a clear property right relationship, play the decisive role of the market in the allocation of the market, etc. Wait. Trade and investment activities between China and capitalist countries including the United States are essentially based on the commonality of the market economy. At this stage, the macro -control policy implemented by China is also in line with the laws of market economy and in line with the provisions of the WTO.
At the same time, we must see that the market economy is a concept of social history, and it has different characteristics in different social systems and historical development stages. Developing countries are different from developed countries, socialism is different from capitalism. It is also a developed capitalist country. There are also the differences between the so -called “Anglo -Saxon model” and “Rhein model”. The socialist market economy is a new type of market economy, which has the general characteristics of the market economy. At the same time, there is a fundamental difference between the capitalist market economy in terms of the structure, distribution system, and institutional mechanism. Confusing the social system with the market economy, the general confusion of the general market economy, denying that China implements the market economy in the role of government and the existence of state -owned enterprises, and then determine that China implements “national capitalism” and is the “national capitalism”. Old and old understanding of market economy errors.
The state -owned enterprises are equivalent to “national capitalism” and can’t stand. State -owned enterprises are an institutional form that adapts to modern production, which is both in capitalist society and socialist society. In fact, state -owned enterprises first appeared in Western capitalist countries. After the Second World War, some developed capitalist countries have set off a wave of large -scale state -ownedization, and have established a large number of state -owned enterprises in various fields that spread throughout the national economy. Even during the peak of privatization, Western countries still retain a considerable scale of state -owned enterprises. In the process of the outbreak and deepening of the international financial crisis in 2008, Western countries even nationalized a large number of enterprises to cope with the economic depression caused by the financial crisis. Essence However, we must also see that the social system is different, and the nature and role of state -owned enterprises are different. State -owned enterprises in Western countries are essentially controlled by a small number of large capitalists behind the government, and eventually they have seized profit services for them. In the socialist market economy, state -owned enterprises are owned by the whole people. They are important forces to promote the modernization of the country and protect the common interests of the people. It is a socialist nature such as security, promoting fair distribution, and achieving common prosperity. The drunkard is not wine. The fundamental reason for some Western politicians to attack Chinese state -owned enterprises is that Chinese state -owned enterprises are constantly doing excellence, stronger, and stronger. And this is what they are unwilling to see.
It is even more incredible to equate the role of the government with “national capitalism”. The relationship between the government and the market is the theme of the evolution of the modern market economy system. The two complement each other and are inseparable. This is the objective law of the development of market economy under the conditions of socialization. Whether it is the capitalist market economy or the socialist market economy, it is inseparable from the effective regulation of the government, including formulating market rules, providing public products, maintaining macroeconomic stability, improving the social security system, maintaining national economic security, and so on. The difference is that the capitalist market economy is based on private ownership. The government is the spokesperson of capital and serves the interests of monopoly capital. Therefore, it is difficult to start from the interests of the whole society and effectively regulate economic and social development to overcome the socialization of production and socialization. The basic contradiction between the private possession of the production data capitalist, and solves the problem of market failure and market defects. The socialist market economy is the main body of public ownership. The government is the representative of all the people and serves the interests of the people. Therefore, it can also start from the overall and long -term interests of the society. The sustainable and healthy development of the economy meets the needs of the people’s increasingly growing lives and realizes the common prosperity of all people.
In short, the difference between the socialist market economy and the capitalist market economy is neither whether it is to play the decisive role of the market in the allocation of resource allocation, nor is it in order to play the role of the government or the existence of state -owned enterprises. Serving the monopoly capital, or the people -centered and serving the people.
The logic of the “national capitalism” theory promoted by some people is: In the capitalist market economy, as long as the state intervention in the economy serves private ownership and capital interests, no matter how much government intervention is, it belongs to the “free market system”, and and then In the socialist market economy, as long as the Communist Party’s leadership and socialist system is adhered to, no matter how much government intervention is, it belongs to “national capitalism”; if it is a Western country to support its own companies to enter the international market, it belongs to the “free market system system “If it is an emerging market country to support the country, it is” national capitalism. ” This is a typical economic hegemony logic.
Fourth, the “national capitalism” in the socialist revolution and construction
From the perspective of historical development, socialism is not related to “national capitalism”. In Marxism’s vision, “national capitalism” is a historical category, which has its historical conditions that produce, develop and decrease. Marxism not only deeply reveals the nature of national capitalism under the capitalist system, but also conducts creative exploration of the nature and development of national capitalism under socialist conditions, and how to treat and use capitalism scientifically.
Lenin first put forward the important idea of using national capitalism to socialism, and the category of national capitalism began to enter the field of socialist economic theory. He believes that under the condition of the majority of small farmers, it is impossible to implement a direct transition from childhood production to socialism, but should use national capitalism as the intermediate link between small production and socialism to promote the development of socialism. The national capitalism under socialist conditions is a capitalism that can be restricted and regulated by its scope. It is a positive and beneficial economic component of socialism, which is conducive to improving the interests of the people. Specific forms such as purchasing agency sales and lease systems.
In the early days of the founding of New China, the Communist Party of China also proposed the idea of completing socialist transformation through national capitalism. Comrade Mao Zedong pointed out: “China’s current capitalist economy is mostly under the management of the people’s government. The capitalist economy is connected to the state -owned socialist economy and supervised by workers. The doctrine economy is no longer an ordinary capitalist economy, but a special capitalist economy, that is, the new national capitalist economy. It is mainly for the profit of capitalists, but to supply the needs of the people and the country. Because of this, this new national capitalist economy belt has a strong socialist nature and is beneficial to the people and the country. It can be seen that national capitalism generated under this specific historical conditions is only a way to transition from capitalism to socialism, and it is a special form of socialist transformation of national capitalism. China’s practice shows that once the socialist transformation has been completed, the basic socialist system with public ownership is established, and the socialist society is entered, and the economic form of national capitalism as a transitional period has completed its own historical mission, withdrawing from the exit History stage.
Since the reform and opening up, the Communist Party of China has proced on the basic national conditions of China, adhered to the liberation and development of productive forces, and successfully created and developed the road, theory, system, and culture with Chinese characteristics. The basic economic system of the initial stage of socialist development in economic development has successfully realized the historic transformation from a highly concentrated planned economic system to a vibrant socialist market economy system. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, under the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core, under the scientific guidance of Xi Jinping’s new era of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era, the Communist Party of China adheres to the people -centered development ideas and thoroughly implement new development new development. Concepts to make the market play a decisive role in resource allocation, better play the role of government role as a direction, focus on improving the property rights system and factor marketization as the focus, comprehensively deepen the reform of the economic system, and continuously improve the socialist economic system with Chinese characteristics and Chinese characteristics with Chinese characteristics. The socialist market economy system promotes high -quality development. China insists on promoting the establishment of a community of human destiny, building an open world economy, actively participating in and promoting the process of economic globalization, adopting a significant relaxation of market access, creating a more attractive investment environment, strengthening intellectual property protection, and active expansion of imports, etc. A series of major measures to open to the outside world promotes the formation of a new pattern of comprehensive opening up. The socialist economic system with Chinese characteristics and the socialist market economy system with Chinese characteristics not only exerts the strengths of the market economy, but also exerts the superiority of the socialist system. The organic combination of organic has promoted the sustainable and healthy development of the economy and society, and achieved great achievements of the world’s attention. It not only benefited all the Chinese people, but also made important contributions to the development and progress of human beings. This is the great achievement of socialism with Chinese characteristics, which is not related to the so -called “national capitalism”. The socialist economic system with Chinese characteristics and the socialist market economy system with Chinese characteristics is the Chinese wisdom and Chinese plan created by the Communist Party of China and the Chinese people to explore more reasonable social systems. It is a great founding in the history of the development of human social systems. The Communist Party of China leads the Chinese people to get out of the bright avenue of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and will never follow the “national capitalism”. From victory to greater victory. (Qiu Shi)