The article has been able to pass on, and it has been a high branch for 20 years.
With abstinence and Su Wujin, he was like Dong Junxian.
The collar of the clothes is not too left, and the diet cup is temporarily disgusted.
After Fan Yangying, he sighed and returned to draw the mountains and rivers.
This is the famous poet Mei Yaochen of the Northern Song Dynasty, “Resending the Northern Envoy of Ancestral Choice”.
Zu Zhezhi is Zu Wuzhi (字選之), a famous minister of the Northern Song Dynasty, preparing to send an envoy to the Liao State, which was regarded as a dangerous way for people at the time. Mei Yaochen comforted him and said, you have become famous, and I hope to be as famous as Su Wu and Dong Zhongshu, so don’t care about Hu Fu Zuo and Bloody diet for the time being. The last sentence is more damaged, meaning that after passing Fan Yang (referring to Zhuozhou in the Tang and Song dynasties, which was part of the Liao Boundary at that time), it is necessary to use his talents and draw back all the dangerous terrain of the enemy.
Zu Wujie is also a generation of great Confucian, and Mei Yaochen actually instigated him to become a spy.
Today’s people have a poor evaluation of spies, but the ancients believed that spies were first-rate talents and were deeply respected, and even many people were proud of taking the initiative to collect intelligence for the country, and they had created countless legends.
Recently, the British series of spy war films “007” launched the final version of “No Time to Die”, which caused a sensation. The success of “007” is related to a large number of entertainment elements such as gunfights, car chases, blood, cruelty, beauty, suspense, etc., in addition, cool high-tech weapons also add a lot of points. But in fact, from the point of view of strategy, comprehensive quality, and actual role, ancient Chinese spies are superior, and even in “black technology”, they will never fall behind. It’s just that film and television workers pay too little attention, otherwise they will be able to make many better films than “007”.
Daniel Craig, who starred in the 007 film series (2015)
The rise of Shang Zhou undercover help
Chinese spies appeared extremely early. The “Six Tao” has clearly set up the espionage establishment, that is, “eight wanderers, the main servant of the traitor and the change, open and close the favor of the people, observe the enemy’s intention, and think that they are spies.” That is, eight people were sent pretending to be tourists to specifically detect the movements and intentions of the enemy.
Five minions, the lord exalts might, inspires the three armies, makes the brave attack sharp, and has no doubts.
Four winged people, the lord raises his reputation, shakes the distance, shakes the four realms, and weakens the enemy.
The two warlocks, the Lord is Tangerine, relying on ghosts and gods to confuse the hearts of the people.
Who is the author of “Six Tao” is controversial. One said that it was Jiang Taigong in the early Zhou Dynasty, the other said that it was a historical official in the early Zhou Dynasty, and the other said that in the Spring and Autumn Period, Qi Huan Gong rebuilt the “Taigong Art of War” and sorted out the archives of the Zhou royal family.
The earliest spies in Chinese history should be Nu Ai (also written as Ru Ai) and Ji Zhu.
According to “Zuo Chuan”: “The handmaid Ai spied, so that Ji Zhu seduced the feast, and then destroyed the achievements of Guo and Ge, and restored Yu.” “It means that during the Xia Dynasty, the powerful minister Hanxun usurped the imperial throne, and Shaokang sent Nu Ai to kill Hanxun’s son Tuo, and sent his son Ji Zhu to deceive Hanxun’s other son, Qi. In the end, Shaokang killed Pang and Qiao, and Hanxun was dead, and the Xia Dynasty was successfully restored.
The “Book of Shang” said that the founder of the Shang Dynasty, Xiang Yiyin, also worked as a spy.
Yi Yin Benxia, as a dowry of the Youxin clan to Shang, was reused by Shang Tang and was sent back to the capital of Anyi many times. According to the “Bamboo Book Chronicle”, the two daughters of Junfa Minshan, Dewan and Yan, then coldly indifferent to the Sue Xi clan (also written as Mei Xi), Yi Yin secretly colluded with Mo Xi to corrupt Xia Zheng. The people complained about Xia Wei and said, “Time is dying, and I and Ru are dead.” “It’s the important information that Yi Yin stole back. In the end, SenseTime seized the opportunity and raised troops to destroy the Xia Dynasty.
Interestingly, according to the “Records of History”, in the last years of the Shang Dynasty, Jiang Taigong also went undercover to King Shun and served as a spy for King Wen of Zhou. That is: “Taigong is well-informed, tastes things, has no way, goes.” Lobbyed the princes, and led the west to Zhou Xibo. ”
Portrait of Jiang Taigong
Qin Yong relied on throwing money
During the Spring and Autumn Warring States period, the great powers competed for hegemony, and spy wars became intense. According to “Zuo Chuan”: “The Jin people obtained Qin spies and killed Zhujian City. ”
The operation is upgraded, and the theory is also upgraded. Sun Tzu’s Art of War is “the earliest and most complete book on espionage theory in China and even in the world”, and Sun Wu proposed: “Wise generals of the Ming Jun, those who can be wise will achieve great success.” That is to say, use the smartest person as a spy, but also “kiss Mo in the room, reward in the middle”, the best treatment and affection.
Portrait of Sun Wu
When spies were respected, Zigong, a student of Confucius, also invited himself to send envoys to separate countries to achieve the goals of “chaos”, “strong promotion” and “hegemony”.
In order to cooperate with spy warfare, there are quite a few technological inventions. For example, hidden words, also known as fallacies, fallacy books, 廋, 廋語, 廋字, etc., the “History” said: King Qi Wei was happy at the time of the king.
And the early bugging apparatus – Fu Poppy. According to “Mozi Bei Cave”, a large tank was buried in the ground, covered with thin cowhide, and soldiers with good ears were allowed to listen to the sound of the enemy digging tunnels.
At the end of the Warring States period, the six eastern countries frequently sent spies to pit the Qin state, and the Korean Zheng Guo helped the Qin state build canals and consume its national strength. After the Battle of Changping, the State of Zhao sent spies to the State of Qin to sow discord between the powerful minister Fan Yu and the famous general Bai Qi, and a generation of famous generals Bai Qi was later killed.
Bitterly determined, the State of Qin also formulated the strategy of “financial sword soldiers”, that is: “Conspirators are sent to hold gold and jade to persuade the princes, and the princes and famous men can give down the rich, thickly leave them, those who refuse, stab them with a sharp sword, and leave the plan of their rulers, and the king of Qin will make his good generals follow.” ”
During the Battle of Changping, the veteran Lian Po instinctively supported, but the spies of the Qin State spread everywhere that “the Qin army is most afraid of Zhao Kuo”, and King Zhao was really deceived. When Wang conquested Zhao, he met the famous general Li Mu, and sent spies to bribe the favored minister Guo Kaijin, saying that Li Mu wanted to rebel in front of King Zhao, causing him to be killed. The spies of the Qin State also paid a lot of money to buy off high-ranking officials from various countries, asking them to persuade the kings of various countries to defend themselves and leave things alone, so that Qin could be defeated.
The characteristic of Qin Yongma is that he is willing to spend a lot of money and pave the way for unification by throwing money.
Emperor Wen of Han established an edict prison
Han Dynasty spy management imitated the Qin Dynasty. “Huainanzi” said: “There are many dangers before and after, and it is easy to see the enemy, and the rebuke is not forgotten, and the official waiting for this is also.” “It is to set up full-time spies in the army – scouts (close to later scouts). In addition, vendors were heavily used as spies. When Emperor Wudi of Han was emperor, he sent Nie Yi to lure the Xiongnu to Mayi in the name of going out to do business, but unfortunately he was unsuccessful.
The Han Dynasty established the first domestic espionage agency in history, the Zhao Prison, also known as the Imperial Prison Prison. Nominally, the edict held only high-ranking officials, but in fact it was the emperor’s private prison, separated from the national judicial system. Emperor Wen of Han built an edict prison, imprisoning Zhou Bo and other heroes, and at most, the Han Dynasty edict prison detained more than 100,000 prisoners.
During the Three Kingdoms period, foreign espionage organizations did not change much, while internal espionage organizations developed greatly, and “school affairs” appeared.
Cao Cao was the initiator, he came from a family of eunuchs, in order to prevent the dissatisfaction of the Shiren clique, in addition to the formal management institutions “Hegemony” (equivalent to the regent government) and “Sheren” (equivalent to the office of the prime minister), he did not build “school affairs”, controlled by his lower-ranking cronies Lu Hong and Zhao Da, with humble dignity. Later, the authority of the “school affairs” was extremely large, “the upper inspection of hundreds of officials, the lower division of the public division, the officials have no bureau, the position is not limited, arbitrarily will, and created by idealism.” The law is made in the pen, and it does not follow the edict, and the prison is made under the door, regardless of the retribution.”
Portrait of Cao Cao
Sun Quan of Eastern Wu was also in a bad position, and also set up a similar institution, called Zhongshu or Dianxiao. Sun Quan’s Zhongshu were Lü Yi and Qin Bo, who “corrected their crimes and made them heard”, so that “the officials and the people would harm them”, and Sun Quan had no choice but to ban the institution.
When the Zhongshu was poisoned, in order to monitor the military and political governors of the prefectures, he set up a signature, that is, “the commander of the code, the affairs of one side, all the commissions, every time he receives it, he pays attention to the adviser, and the beauty and evil of the history act is tied to the mouth of the sign”, which is a spy placed by the emperor next to the minister.
The Tang Emperor and the clan town deceived each other
The Sui and Tang dynasties suffered from external troubles and internal strife, and spies developed rapidly.
In the Sui Dynasty, there were left and right Wuhou Mansions and left and right Yuhou Kai Mansions, “palm scouting, serving very”. The left and right Jinwuwei generals and the left and right Jinwuwei generals of the Tang Dynasty were responsible for the security and intelligence of the Beijing Division, and both had the nature of spy agencies.
The most important spy agency of the Tang Dynasty was the inspector. During the reign of Emperor Suzong of Tang, the great eunuch Li Fuguo was in power, and in order to maintain his position, he established Chashi, nominally the emperor’s direct spy agency, and its members were called Chashi Hall or Chashi Hall. From the perspective of professionalism, the inspection is far beyond the previous generation. According to scholar Ma Duanlin’s research, “The towns of the Tang Domain all set up residences and Jingshi to be the lord of the general.” All the above is left behind. “The Jinquan Courtyard is a spy agency used by the clan town to spy on the Tang Court.
The importance of espionage has increased, and so have the tools. Yan Zhenqing of the Tang Dynasty invented wax pills, which have the advantage of not being afraid of water, ensuring that documents are not damaged and are not easy to find. The Tang people also upgraded the technology of Fu Yi and became a ground listen, that is, no longer buried in the soil, but directly dug a well two feet deep, and then put it into the water tank to listen.
The Tang people also developed the arrow sac into an alarm tool – yafu, this cowhide (the best is made of wild boar skin) arrow sac can blow air, blow up when sleeping at night, cushion under the head as a pillow, the sound within “thirty miles” can be heard. In addition, there is a listening pipe, that is, a bamboo pipe, one end pressed against the wall, you can listen to the whispers of the people in the room.
The brain circuits of the remaining tricks are relatively clear, such as disguising the spy as a beast, “or carved into a beast foot” or “or a crowned microbird”, in order to pass on the message in the wild. In addition, there are men impersonating women. During the Sui and Tang dynasties, the power of “from the Rong costume” was popular, that is, the black gauze hanging from the side of the bucket hat, which was women’s clothing.
When Emperor Wen of Tang died, King Qiong of Han rebelled, let the spies put on the power and deceive into the city, “Xu Yu, change clothes prominently, because of the county seat”. This kind of low-level deception is enough to hit a county.
Low efficiency of internal and external constraints
The espionage agencies of the Song Dynasty are clearer, because the Liao State has a spy agency specifically for the Song Dynasty, according to the “Epitaph of Jia Shixun”: “There are □□□ in the Yanjing Left Mansion, and all the capital prefectures have no details, they must read first and then act.” His government set up a bureau, and all things were even outside the border, and those involved in plotting traitors were assessed for receipt and payment. ”
This “□□□” should be an institution dedicated to Song spies.
As early as the fifth dynasty, the Khitan sent spies into the Central Plains, and according to the “Yutang Gossip”, a beautiful woman without feet, “her father drove her in a single car, from Ye (present-day Linzhang County, Hebei) to the south to Jundu (Bianliang), beggars in the city, gathering thousands of people every day, as for Shenfang Quxiang, Huawu Zhumen, everything… Later, the capital was arrested as a spy from Beirong, and the lawsuit was brought against this woman as the leader of the adulterer, and she heard a lot about it, so she was killed.”
The Song Dynasty also went head-to-head and established spy agencies against Liao in border towns, with special financial support. In addition, in the early Song Dynasty, there was a suitable division, and after that, the pacification department was set up in the border prefecture army. In addition, there was a central assassination agency directly subordinate to the emperor, the Imperial City Division.
The Imperial City Division existed in the Later Tang Dynasty, whose real name was Wu De Division, which was part of the forbidden army, and Song Taizu changed its name to the Imperial City Division (or Imperial City Detective Division), and the subordinates were called Imperial City Pawns, also known as Chazi, “Zhou Liu people, secret service and inspection”.
The Song Dynasty also set up a special spy agency on the border, Bianpu, according to the Southern Song Huayue: “Only if you can set up a shop according to this, recruit spies, and scout Mingyuan, then the soldiers of Tunbian can rest without anything, and they will not be embarrassed… There are 30 people in each bunk and 3 people in each dunk. Or in case of death, A reports to A, and B reports B. Seeing each other without crossing over, and not cutting off communication between near and far, is called gathering and exploring. ”
The dilemma that the Song Dynasty could not break through was that although it invested a lot, it was divided between internal and external parties, and in order to compete for resources, the two sides concealed and constrained each other, resulting in extremely low overall efficiency.
The Ming Dynasty won a spy war
During the Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties, espionage agencies continued to improve, but unfortunately only formed “three factories and one guard” internally, “reaching the peak of ancient China”, and did not make much progress externally.
The third factory refers to the east factory, the west factory and the internal office factory. After Zhu Di usurped the throne, he was worried that his subjects would be dissatisfied and set up an East Factory to suppress it; The West Factory was established by Emperor Xianzong of Ming and was twice as large as the East Factory, and was once abolished, but later restored by the eunuch Liu Jin. The internal office factory was created by Liu Jin. Yiwei refers to Jinyiwei, which has a staffing of more than 1,500 people, and has private courts and prisons.
(Ming) “Police Entry Map” (partial). The guard in red and black hat in the picture is the brocade guard, accompanying the Wanli Emperor.
The scale of the “three factories and one guard” is unprecedented, but it cannot be exempted from the rebellion of the hungry people, and second, it cannot resist foreign aggression.
However, the Ming Dynasty won a beautiful espionage war. According to scholar Zheng Jiexi hook Shen, Toyotomi Hideyoshi invaded the dynasty, after Xu Yi learned of it, he handed the information to the Ming merchant Chen Shen and sent it to Fujian, but unexpectedly, the local official Zheng Zheng arrested Chen Shen, but the relevant alarm was transmitted to the Ming court through other channels, and the famous minister Xu Guangqi learned the information in advance.
After the outbreak of the war, the Ming Dynasty immediately sent spies such as Xu Weijing, Shi Shiyong, Xu Yu, Zhang Yixue, Zhang Yizhi, Lian Sijin, plus Huang Jia, Huang Zhi, Yao Ming, and Yao Zhiqu, who lurked in Japan and even planned a plan to assassinate Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
Among these spies, Xu Yi was the personal doctor of Shimazu Yoshihisa, the lord of the Satsuma clan, Shimadzu was dissatisfied with Toyotomi Hideyoshi and had wanted independence, he found that Toyotomi Hideyoshi was seriously ill, so he told Xu Yi that there were very few people who supported Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and once he died, the Japanese army would withdraw. Xu Yi transmitted this information back to China, so the Ming Dynasty adopted delaying tactics in the later stages of the war.
This beautiful spy war and excellent spies such as Xu Yi and Shi Shiyong are endless. What is particularly noteworthy is that the government and the people sincerely cooperate in the spy war, and overseas businessmen show a strong spirit of justice and dedication. If it weren’t for internal friction, they might have been able to release more light. Their story is far better than the “007” made up. (Responsible editor: Shen Feng)